Dyslexia was identified by Oswald Berkhan in 1881,but the term dyslexia was coined in 1887 by Rudolf Berlin.
Dyslexia is difficulty in reading words or language fluently, with accuracy.The individual with dyslexia lacks accuracy in word recognition, decoding and spelling.
The word dyslexia came from two Greek words, dys-means abnormal or impaired; lexis-means language or words.
Many of us had heard this term Dyslexia in either our daily life or had seen in films.Now films are also showing characters with dyslexia, a very famous Bollywood Film,TaareZameenPae had shown the child character, named as Eshaan having difficulty in reading and learning, here they also focus how this difficulty tends to affect child’s academic performance and leads him in poor performance academically whereas the child in the film isn’t abnormal, he is creative and intelligent, which shows us that child or adult with dyslexia are not lazy or have poor intelligence.
Dyslexia is not a Disorder, its a condition where individual is born with it, It often runs in families.
Dyslexia occurs among people of all economic and ethnic backgrounds. It can happen to male or female either genders.
Mostly dyslexia is seen when a child starts reading and is into education,where if child tends to face symptoms of dyslexia then its advisable to consult doctor as early as possible,if its not treated on time then it can lead to severity which may prolong further till adulthood which may further hamper individual self-esteem too.
Children with dyslexia face trouble with reading,spelling,writing which gives them trouble in learning complex languages like grammar,in depth writing,comprehension.
Dyslexia makes it difficult for people to express themselves clearly as they struggle in talking to others, they are unable to process verbal in formations,they lack ability to comprehend non-literal languages like jokes and proverbs,they lack abstract thinking.
Children with dyslexia are at serious risk of developing emotional problems. One study of children with dyslexia found that most of the children observed were well adjusted in preschool. But they began to develop emotional problems during their early years in school, when their reading issues began to surface.
If children with dyslexia are not identified, they are likely to begin to fail in school, and may act out, or stop trying altogether. Teachers and parents may assume that these children are simply not trying and even punish them. The child may begin to internalise the message that he or she is stupid or bad. This can become a fixed part of his or her identity, undermining self-confidence. It is not surprising, then, that children with dyslexia are at higher risk for behavior problems and depression
All these effects person’s self-image of the individual which makes them loose motivation to overcome to their hurdles which they face.
According to American Psychiatric Association the onset age of dyslexia is observed:
- Usually apparent by age 7(2nd grade),sometimes age 6(DSM-III’1987).
- Sometimes up to age 9,if a developmental reading disorder is compensated for in school (DS-III-R,1987).
Dyslexia symptoms are measured by reading achievement like reading accuracy,speed or comprehension as measured by standardized tests,that falls substantially below the expected, given the individualchronological age,measured intelligence and age appropriate education (DSM-IV,Dyslexia,1994).
Symptoms may vary person to person. Depending on age and other factors.
In some cases, it’s possible to detect symptoms of dyslexia before a child starts school. Symptoms can include:
delayed speech development in comparison with other children of the same age (although this can have many different causes besides dyslexia)
speech problems, such as not being able to pronounce long words properly and “jumbling” up phrases – for example, saying “hecilopter” instead of “helicopter”, or “beddy tear” instead of “teddy bear”
problems expressing themselves using spoken language, such as being unable to remember the right word to use, or putting together sentences incorrectly
little understanding or appreciation of rhyming words, such as “the cat sat on the mat”, or nursery rhymesdifficulty with, or little interest in, learning letters of the alphabet.
Symptoms of dyslexia usually become more obvious when children start school and begin to focus more on learning how to read and write.
Symptoms of dyslexia in children aged 5-12 include:
- Problems learning the names and sounds of letters
- spelling that is unpredictable and inconsistent
- Putting letters and figures the wrong way round –such as putting “6” instead “9”, or “b” instead of “d”
- Confusing the order of letters in words
- Reading slowly or making errors when reading aloud
- Visual disturbances when reading – for example, a child may describe letters and words as seeming to move around or appear blurred
- Answering questions well orally, but having difficulty writing down the answer
- Difficulty carrying out a sequence of directions
- Struggling to learn sequences, such as days of the week or the alphabet
- Slow writing speed
- Poor handwriting
- Problems copying written language, and taking longer than normal to complete written work
- Poor phonological awareness and “word attack skills”
Phonological awareness among school children
what sounds do you think make up the word “hot”, and are these different from the sounds that make up the word “hat”?
what word would you have if you changed the “p” sound in ‘pot’ to an “h” sound?
how many words can you think of that rhyme with the word “cat”?
Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize that words are made up of smaller units of sound (phonemes) and that changing and manipulating phonemes can create new words and meanings.
A child with poor phonological awareness may not be able to correctly answer these questions:
Young children with dyslexia also have problems with “word attack skills”. This is the ability to make sense of unfamiliar words by looking for smaller words or collections of letters, such as “ph” or “ing”, that a child has previously learnt.
For example, a child with good word attack skills may read the word “sunbathing” for the first time and gain a sense of the meaning of the word by breaking it down into “sun”, “bath”, and “ing”.
- Adults with dyslexia may:
- Hide reading problems.
- Spell poorly or rely on others to spell for them.
- Avoid writing or not be able to write at all.
- Be very competent in oral language.
- Rely on memory rather than on reading information.
- Have good “people” skills and be very good at “reading” people (intuitive).
- Have spatial thinking skills. Examples of professionals who need spatial thinking abilities include engineers, architects, designers, artists and craftspeople, mathematicians, physicists, physicians (especially orthopedists, surgeons), and dentists.
- Often work in a job that is well below their intellectual capacities.
- Have difficulty with planning and organization.
- Be entrepreneurs, although lowered reading skills may result in difficulty maintaining a successful business.
CAUSES OF DYSLEXIA:
Researchers have found that children or adults with dyslexia have neurological disorder that causes their brains to process and interpret information differently. Experts do not know precisely what causes dyslexia, but several recent studies now indicate that genetics plays a major role. If you or your partner has dyslexia, you are more prone to have children with dyslexia.
For causing of dyslexia both genetically and biological factors play inter related roles .
This figure compares the situation in the brain of dyslexics and the control group. The blue area depicts the auditory cortices and the green area represents the medial geniculate bodies. MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.
Dyslexia is a difficult disorder to diagnose.There are many factors the psychologist or other health professional reviews to diagnose the disability. The testing determines the child’s functional reading level and compares it to reading potential, which is evaluated by an intelligence test. All aspects of the reading process are examined to pinpoint where the breakdown is occurring.
The tests administered are standardized and are considered highly reliable
Special Education approaches have been developed for students with dyslexia. Adaptive Technology,such as specialized computer software, has resulted in recent innovations helpful to many people with dyslexia.
Through compensation strategies and therapy, dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write with educational support. There are techniques and technical aids that can manage or even conceal symptoms of the disorder.
Tips for Parents of Children with Dyslexia
As parents, there are many things you can do to help a child with dyslexia:
- Be Aware and Updated. Learn all you can about dyslexia treatments, and keep up with the latest research. Seek out other parents of children with dyslexia. They may be an excellent source of information and support..
- Make sure your child is getting the support he or she needs. See that your child is evaluated and that he or she is getting the right sort of intervention and accommodations at school. Check in regularly with your child’s teacher and learning specialists. Don’t hesitate to intervene if your child doesn’t seem to be thriving, or seems particularly frustrated or discouraged.
- Read to your child often. Encourage him or her to read to the best of his or her ability.
- Provide homework support. Make sure your child has a quiet place to study, and that he or she has plenty of time to complete homework. Try to be patient and to create a relaxed, stress-free environment at homework time. Look into tutoring. You may get help through free or low-cost community agencies. If you can afford it, private tutoring is also an option.
- Encourage your child to pursue activities he or she enjoys. Art, theatre, sports, and other non-academic activities all provide positive outlets for children with dyslexia as well as the opportunity to excel.
- Give your child lots of positive feedback and encouragement. No matter how well the teacher and school work with your child, he or she may face daily reminders about being different from the other children in his or her class. Do what you can to identify and praise strengths and accomplishments.
- Get help if your child shows signs of emotional distress. Every child has occasional low points, but if your child seems particularly angry, troubled, or depressed, get professional help. Your paediatrician can refer you to a counselor or therapist.
FAMOUS PERSONALITIES WHO HAD DYSLEXIA: There are many famous personalities who had undergone with Dyslexia ,but had recovered from that and have proved to be successful in their own fields.
Following are some names of famous personalities who had dyslexia but had proven to be very successful and had contribute in there fields :
- Steven Spielberg – Famous American Filmmaker who had given amazing cinemas to the Hollywood and had won many awards for his films like Jaws, Jurassic Park etc .To date, the adjusted gross of all Spielberg-directed films exceeds $8.5 billion worldwide.
- Henry Ford – Founder of the Ford Motor Company,he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford. In doing so.
- Leonardo da Vinci – was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
- Thomas Edison – was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
- Albert Einstein – German-born theoretical physicist and philosopher of science. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics.
- Muhammad Ali – World Heavyweight Champion Boxer.
- Walt Disney – was an American business magnate, animator, producer, director, screenwriter, philanthropist, and voice actor,innovator in animation.He and his staff created various fictional characters including Mickey Mouse Donald Duck and Goofy.
- Alexander Graham Bell – was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.
- Abhishek Bachchan – an Indian film actor, producer, playback singer and television host. Bachchan has received three Film fare Awards for acting, a National Award as producer and was named as one of the highest paid actors in Bollywood in 2010.
- Tom Cruise. He is one of the world’s most famous Actors. Despite having dyslexia, he has starred in blockbuster movies and has received praise from critics for his acting skills.